Nasal and sinus congestion are among the most common reasons for visiting a healthcare provider—for conditions like sinus infections, allergies, and viral illnesses like colds.
These conditions share common symptoms, and you can have more than one of them at once—so it can be tough to know what’s causing your suffering.
In fact, a viral illness or long-standing allergies can actually lead to a sinus infection.
The number of common symptoms shared between allergies and sinus infections means that identifying one or the other can often be difficult and confusing, especially if you’re trying to diagnose yourself at home.
So how can you tell the difference?
In this article, I’ll explore the difference between sinus infections and allergies, including their individual and shared symptoms.
I’ll talk about some home remedies and other treatment options, as well as ways to prevent sinus infections and the symptoms of allergies. Finally, I’ll help you know when it’s best to talk to a healthcare provider.
What Are the Differences Between Sinus Infections and Allergies?
There are two different kinds of sinus infections, viral and bacterial.
Viral infections are far more common—they cause nearly all sinus infections. These types of infections can be uncomfortable, but do get better on their own.
Bacterial sinusitis is less common, and generally starts as a viral infection (or sometimes allergies).
Once the sinuses and nasal passages are swollen and inflamed, bacteria can grow and gradually infect the lining of the facial and nasal cavities, leading to more severe and long-standing symptoms.
Allergies can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms.
They occur as a result of the immune system reacting to allergens like pollen, pet dander, dust, and other triggers.
Once the body has a negative reaction, the immune system responds by releasing a chemical called histamine, which causes an allergic reaction.
What causes allergies are specific to the patient, and each allergy sufferer may have slightly different symptoms in response.
While most allergies appear during childhood and adolescence, they can also develop in response to new triggers as an adult.
Indoor and outdoor causes for allergic reactions can include:
- Pollen from trees, grass, plants, and weeds
- Pet hair or dander
- Dust and dust mites
- Rodent dander
Compare the following common ailments to see if you are dealing with allergy symptoms or have a possible sinus infection.
Keep in mind that it’s possible to have both conditions at the same time, particularly in peak allergy seasons.
Symptoms for allergic rhinitis include headaches, sneezing, congestion, fogginess, skin rash, and itchy eyes.
If you share several symptoms of sinus infections and allergies and can’t tell which one you’re dealing with, consider that eye itchiness and redness, or symptoms that always occur at certain times of year or in certain environments, often point to an allergic reaction.
In the majority of cases, both allergic reactions and sinus infections can be treated at home without prescription medications.
The most important step when dealing with an allergic reaction is to identify the allergens causing the reaction and avoid them.
When it is impossible to avoid an allergen, there are many effective over-the-counter medications that can help:
- Daily antihistamine medications: Cetirizine (Zyrtec), loratadine (Claritin), and levocetirizine (Xyzal) can be helpful and safe options for reducing allergy symptoms.
- As-needed antihistamines: These medications, like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) can be taken as needed for acute allergic symptoms.
- Corticosteroids: Nasal sprays like fluticasone (Flonase) or Nasocort used twice a day can be effective for nasal congestion and overall allergic symptoms.
- Allergy eye drops: These can be effective for eye redness, tearing, and itching.
Sinus infections don’t necessarily clear up with allergy medications.
The good news is that most sinus infections respond well to over-the-counter treatments and time.
There are several ways to help speed up this process with home remedies, as well as relieve pressure and pain from the sinuses, including:
- Warm compress: Apply over the nose and forehead.
- Decongestant nasal sprays: Nasal sprays like oxymetazoline (Afrin, twice a day for three days only, unless you have high blood pressure) or fluticasone (Flonase, twice a day for as long as symptoms last) can help drain and dry pooled mucus.
- Saline nasal sprays: Use several times per day to help clear and thin pooled mucus.
- Steam: Inhale either from a bowl or in a warm shower.
- Humidifier: Use one to add moisture to the air.
- Water and rest: Get plenty of both.
- Over-the-counter medications: Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) for pain and discomfort, and Robitussin or Mucinex (guaifenesin) to thin mucus and decrease coughing and congestion.
Because it’s impossible to fully prevent allergies, identifying and avoiding the cause of your allergies is by far the most important step in preventing future reactions.
Beyond just avoiding allergens, there are specific strategies depending on what is causing the allergy—if it’s a pollen allergy, wash your hair before bed after a day outside.
If you have a dust allergy, wash your sheets weekly and clean your living space regularly.
If you’re allergic to an animal, abstain from touching your face after contact with animal hair and dander.
To prevent sinus infections, use the same tactics and behaviors that work for avoiding colds and the flu, including:
- Frequently wash your hands with soap and water
- Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze
- Avoid close contact with infected people
- Get plenty of rest and exercise
- Avoid nasal irritants like smoke or other pollution
- Stay hydrated
When to See a Healthcare Provider
There are cases in which both allergic reactions and sinus infections will require the attention of a medical professional.
If you experience symptoms for several days and cannot identify the ailment, a medical provider will be able to diagnose you properly.
But even if you know what you have, you should seek medical care after experiencing any of the following:
- Severe headaches or intense facial pain that do not improve with appropriate doses of Ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and decongestants
- Symptoms that get worse after initial improvement
- Symptoms that persist 10 or more days without improvement, or worsen after 10 days
- Fever over 100.4° F lasting longer than three days, or any fever above 102° F (38.8° C)
- Problems seeing, double vision, or severe swelling and redness around the eyes
- Multiple cases over the course of a year
- Issues with balance or dizziness
- Discolored nasal discharge
- Hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
- Recurring adenoid, ear, or tonsil infections
- Persistent trouble swallowing or talking
A specialist also might have recommendations for preventive measures like allergy shots, which can lessen the way your body reacts to allergens over time.
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Frequently Asked Questions
K Health has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references.
Allergy Facts and Figures. (2021).
Sinusitis Statistics 2020-2019 – Sinusitis Facts and Data Trends. (2020).
Sinus Infection (Sinusitis). 2019.
Allergic Rhinitis: an Overview. (2015).
Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis. (2016).