Paxil (paroxetine HCl) is a commonly prescribed medicine that nearly twelve million Americans take to treat depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. It can help improve your day-to-day mood, energy, and interest in life, while reducing any fear, anxiety, unwanted thoughts, and panic attacks. It may also help to dampen down the urge to perform repetitive compulsive tasks that can interfere with your daily living.
What Is Paxil?
Paxil is a prescription-only psychotropic drug that is used to help you with conditions that affect your mind, emotions, or behavior. It comes in tablet or liquid suspension form. Paxil has helped millions of Americans feel better when suffering from depression, anxiety, panic attacks, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Paxil belongs to the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with depression, anxiety, or other mood disorders.
Paxil Generic Name
Paxil is a brand name for the generic drug called paroxetine hydrochloride (HCl) or paroxetine for short. Paroxetine is also sold under another brand name called Brisdelle.
The well-known international biopharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline developed Paxil and obtained approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 for its use in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. Since 2003, Paxil has been available as a cheaper generic drug, paroxetine, in the United States.
Paroxetine HCl is a prescribed medication used to treat the following conditions:
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also called clinical depression, is a common and serious mood disorder where you have a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest, and you may feel as if life isn’t worth living. You lose interest in activities you once enjoyed and you are unable or find it hard to carry out your day-to-day tasks. Apart from these emotional problems, you may also have physical symptoms such as chronic pain or digestive issues.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Paxil was approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in 2001. GAD is a condition in which you have excessive anxiety and worry that is difficult to control. This anxiety and worry can be about various activities in your life, reducing your ability to cope with everyday tasks and causing you a lot of distress. GAD occurs on more days than not for at least six months. Almost 6% of American adults have suffered from GAD at some point in their lifetime. What’s more, nearly one in three people with GAD struggle with severe anxiety and mental illness.
Social anxiety disorder
Paxil was approved for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in 1999. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the feeling of intense anxiety or fear of being judged, negatively evaluated or rejected in a social or performance situation. You may be worried about acting or appearing visibly anxious, or being viewed as stupid, awkward, or boring. This may lead you to avoid such situations whenever possible. In such social situations, as well as suffering from extreme anxiety and distress, you may also feel physical symptoms, such as a rapid heart rate, nausea, sweating, and even full-blown anxiety attacks. Although you know rationally that your anxiety and fear is excessive, you may feel powerless to prevent it and it can negatively affect your life and prevent you from forming social and romantic relationships, finishing your studies, and getting a job.
It is important you seek professional medical help if you think you may have social anxiety disorder since there are effective treatments, such as paroxetine, that can help you live a less anxious life. Unfortunately, of the approximately 15 million American adults who suffer from social anxiety disorder, fewer than 5% seek treatment and those who don’t are at increased risk of becoming depressed or alcoholic.
Panic disorder is characterized by panic attacks that occur suddenly. Panic attacks often build quickly and reach their highest intensity in a matter of minutes. They usually last between 5-20 minutes, and can occur several times a day, week, month, or even just a few times a year.
It is worth noting that panic attacks and anxiety attacks are not the same. While the symptoms are similar, panic attacks are recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), while anxiety attacks are not.
According to the DSM-5, there are two categories of panic attacks: expected and unexpected. Expected panic attacks are typically linked to a specific fear such as being afraid of heights, whereas unexpected panic attacks have no known triggers and appear to occur out of the blue.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is when you get caught up in a cycle of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are defined as repetitive, unwanted, and uncontrollable intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that trigger intensely distressing feelings. Obsessions seen with OCD include obsessions related to contamination, losing control, fear of harm, perfectionism, religion, unwanted sexual thoughts, and more. Compulsions are defined as behaviors you engage in to attempt to get rid of or escape the obsessions and reduce your distress. Common compulsions include excessive washing and cleaning, checking, and repeating, as well as mental compulsions including mental reviewing, counting, praying, and others.
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is the brain’s natural reaction following the experience of a traumatic situation or event. Such an event may have been an accident, you being a victim or witness to a violent crime, war or terrorism, serious disease or natural disaster, or if you’ve suffered physical or sexual abuse. Such a trauma may have led you to feel intense fear, pain, or sorrow to the extent that you are fearful of serious harm or death. You continue to feel helpless after the event and altogether these feelings affect your daily activities and relationships.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has serious depression, irritability, and tension before menstruation. Unlike premenstrual syndrome (PMS), PMDD is much more severe to the extent that it can affect a woman from carrying out her normal daily activities and relationships. In both conditions, about 5-11 days before menstruation, a woman will have a wide range of physical or emotional symptoms that will then usually stop once her period starts.
How Does Paroxetine Work?
Paroxetine is a medication that belongs to the drug class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This drug group also contains fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), and sertraline (Zoloft). Depression and other mood disorders are thought to occur due to an imbalance among chemicals called neurotransmitters that are sent between the nerve cells or neurons of your brain. Paroxetine works by preventing the reuptake or absorption of one neurotransmitter, serotonin, by neurons after it has been released from other neurons. This increases the level of free serotonin that can stimulate your brain’s neurons. Therefore, by balancing the levels of serotonin in the brain, paroxetine can help enhance your mood, reduce anxiety, and alleviate the symptoms of other mood disorders.
Before You Take Paroxetine
Paroxetine is not a medication that is ideal for everyone with clinical depression, GAD, or other mood disorders. You should not take it if you are aware of an allergy or hypersensitivity to paroxetine or if you also take pimozide (Orap). Before you take paroxetine, your doctor will go through your medical history and check that you do not have any other health issues which would affect how well this medicine will work. Let you doctor know if you have any of the following:
- Low levels of sodium in your blood
- Heart disease, high blood pressure, or a stroke
- Bipolar disorder (manic depression), drug addiction, or suicidal thoughts
- Narrow-angle glaucoma
- Liver or kidney disease
- A bleeding or blood clotting disorder
- Seizures or epilepsy
Paroxetine can potentially interact with numerous medications, increasing or decreasing its concentration in the blood or how well it works. Such paroxetine interactions can also cause preventable side-effects so it’s important that your doctor knows what other medications you are currently taking before prescribing paroxetine. You also need to make sure you notify your doctor if you start or stop taking over-the-counter medications or off-the-counter supplements while on paroxetine.
Do not use paroxetine if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) in the last 14 days or are about to take an MAOI within the next 14 days because this can result in dangerously increased blood pressure and serotonin syndrome.
Drinking alcohol with paroxetine should be avoided since this can cause unpleasant but preventable side effects. Be aware that paroxetine can impair your thinking and reactions so make sure while you are taking this medicine that you are especially careful while driving or carrying out other activities where you need to be alert.
Paroxetine is not approved for use in children and adolescents under 18 years old.
Paroxetine is available as a liquid suspension, as immediate-release tablets, and as extended-release (long-acting) tablets. Normally, you take paroxetine once a day, either in the morning or in the evening. Swallow the medication whole without crushing or chewing. You can take paroxetine with or without food but it is recommended to take it with food to help prevent an upset stomach.
The following are the recommended dosages for immediate-release tablets and suspension for the different conditions that are treated with paroxetine. After the initial dose, your doctor can increase your dose, if needed, by 10 mg each day until you reach the optimal dose for you.
- Major depressive disorder: recommended daily dose = 20-50 mg; initial daily dose = 20 mg; maximum daily dose = 50 mg
- Generalized anxiety disorder: recommended daily dose = 20 mg; initial daily dose = 20 mg; maximum daily dose = 20 mg
- Obsessive compulsive disorder: recommended daily dose = 40 mg; initial daily dose = 20 mg; maximum daily dose = 60 mg
- Panic disorder: recommended daily dose = 10-40 mg; initial daily dose = 10 mg; maximum daily dose = 60 mg
- Social anxiety disorder: recommended daily dose = 20-60 mg; initial daily dose = 20 mg; maximum daily dose = 60 mg
- Post-traumatic stress disorder: recommended daily dose = 20-50 mg; initial daily dose = 20 mg; maximum daily dose = 50 mg
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder*: recommended daily dose = 12.5-25 mg; initial daily dose = 12.5 mg; maximum daily dose = 25 mg
*for controlled-release tablets starting 14 days before your anticipated date of your period through to the first day of your period.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Always take your medication according to your doctor’s instructions and what it says on the information sheet that comes with your tablets. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is nearly time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Never double your dose to compensate for your missed dose.
How long does it take for paroxetine to take effect?
You will need to be patient when you first start taking paroxetine since it is slow acting and it can take up to 6-8 weeks before you feel real improvements. However, it’ll only take 1-2 weeks to see improvement in physical symptoms such as better sleep, energy, and appetite; this will give you an early signal that the medication is working. You will need to make regular follow-up appointments with your doctor to make sure you are continuing on the best dosage for you.
Can you stop paroxetine cold turkey? Does paroxetine cause withdrawal symptoms?
Do not stop taking paroxetine, even if you feel better, without discussing it first with your doctor. If you and your doctor find that it is time to stop taking paroxetine, it is not a good idea to cease the medication suddenly. This is because you can end up with some unpleasant paroxetine withdrawal symptoms. These can include irritability, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, nightmares, headaches, and/or tingling prickly skin. Instead, discuss with your doctor how you can slowly reduce your dose to avoid any unwanted withdrawal effects.
Common Side Effects
Common Paxil or paroxetine side effects include but are not limited to:
- Vision changes
- Weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, tiredness
- Sweating, anxiety, shaking
- Sleep problems (insomnia)
- Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
- Dry mouth, yawning
- Decreased sex drive, impotence, abnormal ejaculation, or difficulty having an orgasm
An allergic reaction to paroxetine is rare but do make sure you seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of the following signs:
- Rashes or hives
- Trouble breathing
- Swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat
Also call your doctor straight away if you have any of the following serious side effects when taking paroxetine:
- Vision or eye problems: blurred vision, tunnel vision, eye pain or swelling, or seeing halos around lights
- Mental symptoms: racing thoughts, unusual risk-taking behavior, feelings of extreme happiness or sadness
- Unusual bone pain: including bone tenderness, swelling or bruising
- Unusual bleeding: from your nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum
- Signs of low salt levels: headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe weakness, vomiting, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady
- Severe nervous system reactions: very stiff (rigid) muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, feeling like you might pass out
- Signs of serotonin syndrome: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
If you think you may have taken an overdose of paroxetine, seek emergency medical attention (by calling 911), or call the poison help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Paroxetine and weight gain
You may experience weight gain when taking paroxetine. Experts are not sure why this happens but it may be that SSRIs cause changes in your body’s metabolism so that you are not as efficiently using up the calories you take in through your food, or because the drug increases your appetite.
Paroxetine is not for everyone. If for whatever reason paroxetine is not alleviating your symptoms, or you cannot take paroxetine due to a pre-existing medical condition or medication that would interact with paroxetine, there are other treatments that may help you. Talk with your doctor to see whether you can try other medications or various therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or other ‘talk therapies’. Many people suffering from depression, GAD, and other mood disorders find such therapies to be of great benefit.
Paxil vs. Xanax
Paxil and Xanax (alprazolam) are similar medications in that they are both used to treat panic attacks and anxiety disorders. However, Paxil is also used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
The reason Paxil can treat more conditions than Xanax is because it belongs to a different drug class; Paxil is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor while Xanax is a benzodiazepine. This means the two drugs are chemically and pharmacologically different. Xanax can have many unpleasant side effects but unlike Paxil, it can also have sedative and muscle relaxant effects and can be extremely habit-forming or addictive and therefore be abused.
Paxil vs. Prozac
Prozac (fluoxetine) and Paxil (paroxetine) are different medications but they do have some things in common. Firstly, they are both prescription medications used to treat depression and other psychiatric disorders, and secondly, they both belong to the same drug class called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This means that Paxil and Prozac work in a similar way to increase the amount of serotonin in the brain and reduce depression.
Prozac and Paxil work in the brain in a similar way. However, they are not identical medications and have different FDA approval for how they are used. Both drugs are used to treat major depressive disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. However, Prozac can also be used to treat bulimia nervosa and Paxil can also treat generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually, antidepressants are not designed for children but in the case of Prozac it can also be used to treat depression (in children at least eight years old) and obsessive compulsive disorder (in children at least seven years old).
Since Paxil and Prozac work in a similar way in your brain, they do cause similar side effects and have shared drug interactions. Nevertheless, Prozac is more stimulating than Paxil. Therefore doctors recommend you take Prozac in the morning rather than the evening so that it doesn’t cause you to lose sleep at night.
Finally, it is important to know that if you stop either Paxil or Prozac abruptly, you can suffer from unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Make sure you work with your doctor to slowly reduce your dose before coming off your medicine.
When to See a Doctor
These conditions do not need to take over your life. Seeking professional help can guide you to a treatment that works best for you. Once suitable treatment is found, you will feel much more in control and find life more enjoyable.
It’s time to see your primary-care doctor or a mental-health specialist for an evaluation if you are suffering from any of the mental and/or physical symptoms discussed above of the conditions treated by paroxetine hydrochloride. This is especially true if they are severely affecting your ability to function in your daily tasks and interact with other people. Don’t wait for things to become unbearable; there is no shame in getting help and there are many medications and therapies available that can significantly alleviate symptoms. K Health offers K Therapy, a text-based therapy program that includes unlimited messaging with a licensed therapist, plus free resources designed by mental health experts to use on your own.
If you’re having a mental health emergency, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room. You can also get free 24/7 support from a suicide and crisis expert by calling or texting 988. If you’d prefer to chat online, you can chat with a suicide and crisis expert by visiting the Lifeline Chat.
How K Health Can Help
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K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.