Best Cold Medicine for Your Symptoms

By Craig Sorkin, DNP, APN
Medically reviewed checkmarkMedically reviewed
September 30, 2022

If you’re suffering from a cold, there’s no shortage of over-the-counter medicines you can take to remedy your various symptoms.

And while that’s a good thing, it can also create a lot of confusion: Do you need a cough suppressant or an expectorant? Would a decongestant tablet or nasal spray be best to relieve a stuffy nose? And exactly how many medications are safe to take at once? 

In this article, we’ll not only discuss the typical symptoms of a common cold, we’ll also break down the different types of cold medicines and which ones best treat specific symptoms.

Types of Cold Medicine  

Every person and every cold is different. When symptoms are mild, you may be able to tough it out. But when you can’t stop coughing, can’t sleep due to discomfort, or simply want relief, you may want to consider cold medicine. Keep in mind, these medications do not make a cold go away faster. They only treat the symptoms and do not treat the underlying illness.

Pain relievers 

Pain relievers may help alleviate body aches, headaches, or fever. Acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil), or naproxen (Naprosyn) are the most common pain relievers. 

Be careful about combining pain relievers with other OTC medicines. Many cold medications contain acetaminophen or ibuprofen, so it’s important to read the ingredients or you may accidentally overdose. Talk to a pharmacist or your healthcare provider if you are uncertain what to do.

Decongestants

Decongestants help ease the pressure and swelling of the nose, so they’re best for treating nasal congestion or a stuffy nose. There are two types of decongestants: decongestant pills or nasal sprays. 

Pills like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) and phenylephrine (Sudafed PE) can loosen up congestion. However, they can also raise blood pressure, so doctors do not recommend taking them if you have hypertension. Nasal sprays like oxymetazoline (Afrin), phenylephrine (Sinex), and naphazoline (Privine) are also available.

It is not recommended to use a decongestant spray for more than three consecutive days, or you could experience “rebound congestion”. This is when the medication becomes less effective. In turn, you might try to use more nasal spray, but that will only lead to more congestion.

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Antihistamines 

Histamine is the active chemical in an allergic reaction, so antihistamines help combat common allergy symptoms. Whether you have seasonal allergies or the common cold, antihistamines can help treat sneezing or a runny nose.

Common antihistamines include: 

  • Cetirizine (Zyrtec)
  • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  • Loratadine (Claritin)

Cough suppressants

Whether you’re trying to sleep or want to give your lungs a break, cough suppressants may help. Cough suppressants, or antitussives, dampen the urge to cough and reduce how often you cough.

The most common cough suppressant is dextromethorphan (Vicks DayQuil Cough, Delsym, Robitussin Cough). There is mixed data about whether cough suppressants are fully effective and if they should be a part of your treatment plan.

Coughing is the body’s natural way of expelling germs and mucus from the lungs, so it is a vital part of the healing process. At the same time, we all know that getting a full night’s rest can do wonders for treating a cold. 

Expectorants

Expectorants also treat coughs. They work by thinning out the amount of mucus in the upper respiratory tract. This makes it easier to cough up excess mucus, therefore making coughs more productive.

Expectorants are usually combined with cough suppressants. Guaifenesin (Robitussin, Mucinex, Robafen) is the most active ingredient in common expectorants.  

Runny Nose

A runny nose is your body’s natural way of expelling irritants and germs from your nasal passage.

But if you can’t stop dripping, an antihistamine such as cetirizine (Zyrtec), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), or loratadine (Claritin) may help.

As you can see, antihistamine is most commonly found in allergy medication.

Stuffy Nose

If you have a stuffy nose or nasal congestion, you might want to take medicine with the active ingredient pseudoephedrine (like Sudafed).

This oral decongestant loosens up congestion in the nasal passages, making it easier to breathe.

However, be mindful about taking medicines with pseudoephedrine if you have hypertension, as the ingredient may increase blood pressure. Decongestant sprays with the active ingredients oxymetazoline (Afrin), phenylephrine (Sinex), or naphazoline (Privine) can also open up nasal passages.

However, you should not use nasal sprays for more than three straight days, or you may experience a “rebound effect”. This causes your body to generate even more mucus and may make you dependent on nasal sprays. 

Sneezing

Sneezing is another way your body naturally rids itself of a virus.

However, if you’re tired of reaching for the tissue box, you may want some allergy medication or antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or loratadine (Claritin). 

Fever

While a mild (a.k.a. low-grade) fever is no cause for concern, you do not want it to become severe.

A pain reliever, like ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol), may help reduce a fever. Either is safe for adults and children older than six months old. Just check the dosing instructions carefully, and always consult a pediatrician before giving medication to children. 

Aches and Pains

The same medicines used to treat a fever may also help ease mild body aches and pains.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like naproxen (Naprosyn), acetaminophen (Tylenol), and ibuprofen (Advil) are some of the best OTC options. 

Sore Throat 

A few choices exist for a sore throat.

If you believe postnasal drip is a contributing factor, decongestants like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) or loratadine (Claritin) may help dry out the mucus and ease discomfort.

Additionally, pain relievers like ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol) may help relieve painful swallowing.

But if you think the cause of your sore throat is a bacterial infection, see your doctor, who may prescribe an antibiotic. 

While medication isn’t a bad choice, natural remedies can also soothe a sore throat.

Try drinking warm beverages like tea with honey, gargling with salt water to reduce inflammation, or using lozenges. Ginger, lemon and other herbal supplements can help the throat as well. Honey also has antibacterial properties.

Cough

The best cough medicine depends on your situation.

If you want to halt the cough reflex, then you should take an antitussive like dextromethorphan (Vicks Dayquil Cough, Delsym). If you want to thin out the mucus so it is easier to cough out, then an expectorant like guaifenesin (Mucinex, Robafen) is your best option. 

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Are Antibiotics Used to Treat Colds? 

Common colds don’t have an official treatment plan or remedy. Generally, you have to let them run their course and ease symptoms as they arise. In fact, taking antibiotics in an attempt to remedy a cold can cause additional harm and side effects without getting rid of the cold. 

Because of the risk that taking antibiotics would have on your body when trying to use them to treat a cold, they’re not generally prescribed by a doctor. 

When to See a Medical Provider

The common cold is not a fatal illness, and it should pass within 10 days.

However, if you experiencing one or more of the following symptoms, make an appointment to see a doctor: 

How K Health Can Help  

Did you know you can access online urgent care with K Health?

Check your symptoms, explore conditions and treatments, and if needed, text with a healthcare provider in minutes. 

K Health’s AI-powered app is HIPAA compliant and is based on 20 years of clinical data.

Frequently Asked Questions

Does a cold always need to be treated with medicine?
Taking medication for a cold comes down to personal preference. A cold is not as serious as the flu, and your immune system is more than capable of fighting off a virus. Additionally, while cold medicine may offer relief from symptoms like fever, coughing, and runny or stuffy nose, no medication can address the underlying cause of the common cold. Whether or not you take medicine, it’s always best to treat a cold with plenty of rest and liquids.
Will a cold go away on its own?
A cold should go away on its own in about 10-14 days. It is not unusual for a few symptoms to linger beyond this timeline. However, unless symptoms worsen, there is no cause for concern.
Can you take multiple cold medicines at once?
As a general rule, you should not take multiple medications at once. For one, some medicines may interact with others. For another, this may lead to “double-dosing” on specific active ingredients. To stay safe, always read the packages of OTC medications, as some combine multiple ingredients.

K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.

Craig Sorkin, DNP, APN

Craig Sorkin, DNP, APN is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner with over 15 years experience. He received his Undergraduate and Graduate degrees from William Paterson University and his doctoral degree from Drexel University. He has spent his career working in the Emergency Room and Primary Care. The last 6 years of his career have been dedicated to the field of digital medicine. He has created departments geared towards this specialized practice as well as written blogs and a book about the topic.

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